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Protocol at each layer of the OSI model

• The Physical layer is the layer that is responsible for the transmission and reception of raw bits from one computer node to the next. The coax, fiber, or wireless transmission media is employed in this tier of the protocol stack. The management of the physical layer is performed by Hub. The performance of the network is enhanced by the installation of a switch inside the hub of the network. This switch is used to boost the throughput of the network, since it is linked to other switches in the network and is used to increase the network’s overall capacity. Therefore, it is used to increase the speed and efficiency of the network by routing the packets directly to the destination rather than broadcasting throughout the whole network. This improves the overall performance of the network. By using this switch, one is able to lessen the congestion of packets in the network while simultaneously freeing up bandwidth for use by other computers. Additionally, these switches may be set in a way that gives some kinds of traffic precedence over others, which is something that is very necessary for applications such as streaming and voice over internet protocol (VoIP).

• The Data Link layer is the layer that contains the protocol that is used to transport data frames from one node to another. Ethernet, SLIP, PPP, and FDDI are the protocols that are used at this layer. Switches and bridges are the devices that participate in this protocol. Bridges are used to link nodes on separate subnets, while switches are used to connect individual nodes on the same subnet. Error detection, flow management, and acknowledgements are all tasks that fall within the purview of the Data Link layer. In addition to this, it offers the mechanism for the transfer of frames from one node to another. In addition, this layer may be used for connectionless communication, which refers to the process in which two nodes can exchange data without first establishing a connection with one another.

• Network layer: the protocol at this layer that is used to transport the data packet between two nodes that are either part of the same network or are part of two other networks that are linked. IP, IPX, and ICMP are the protocols that are utilized in this layer. The Router is the device that is utilized in this tier. This protocol is used to determine the path of the transmission based on the routing table that is deployed at each intermediate node, and finally reach the destination router based on the network address that is contained within the data packet. This is done by using the routing table that is deployed at each intermediate node. IPX and ICMP are the protocols that are in charge of error detection, whereas IP is the protocol that is in charge of delivering the packet to its intended location. While ICMP is used to share the status of a specific network connection and also to exchange the routing table between two nodes, IPX is used to route packets across other networks. IPX also gives the ability to route packets between multiple networks. In order to send data from one node to another, protocols such as UDP, TCP, and SCTP are used. UDP is used for applications that need minimal latency, whereas TCP is used for applications that require reliable transfer of packets between two nodes.

• Transport layer: Protocol at this layer are responsible for the end-to-end communication of the two nodes and ensure that the entire message or file has been delivered before forwarding the data to the next layer. They do this by making sure that all parts of the message or file have been delivered. This protocol is used in order to ascertain the dependability of the data packets and to govern their flow. TCP and UDP are the protocols that are used at this level. UDP is used for applications that need minimal latency, whereas TCP is used for applications that require reliable transfer of packets between two nodes. While UDP is used to communicate the status of a specific network connection and also to communicate the routing table between two nodes, TCP is used to route packets across multiple networks. TCP also gives the ability to route messages between other networks. TCP is used for the secure transfer of packets between two nodes, whereas UDP is used to route packets across multiple networks. UDP also gives the ability to route messages between other networks.

• The Session layer is in charge of maintaining the user session across apps. It is responsible for this layer. For the purpose of session management, this layer makes use of a wide variety of APIs and SOCKETS. This layer is responsible for stopping, starting, and maintaining the session’s instructions. In order to ensure that communication between two hosts may take place in a manner that is synchronized, The time on each of the servers is brought into sync in order to do this. The servers communicate with one another by sending and receiving messages in order to achieve this synchronization. The primary objective of this synchronization is to ensure that the data on both of the servers remain in sync with one another. This synchronization is accomplished via the employment of two distinct approaches. These communications are known as the “ping-pong” messages and the “session keep-alive” messages. Throughout the duration of the session, the session keep-alive messages are periodically sent to check and see whether the connection is still active. The “ping-pong” messages serve the purpose of verifying the correctness of the data that is being sent and received. Both of these approaches guarantee that data will be sent between two nodes in a synchronous manner.

• Presentation layer: This layer is utilized for the purpose of displaying the data to the user in a way that is both easy to grasp and convenient. This layer was responsible for encrypting, decrypting, converting data, and other similar tasks in the past. FTP, SSL, IMAP, and SSH are the protocols that are used at this layer. These protocols are what are used in order to transmit the files from one node to another. SSH is used for transferring files between the server and the client, whereas FTP is used for obtaining e-mail from the server. SSL is used to safeguard communication between the client and the server. FTP is used to transfer files between the client and the server. While SSL offers the ability to encrypt communication between a client and a server, File Transfer Protocol grants the capacity to transport packets across various networks. IMAP is used for the process of getting email from the server, whilst SSH is utilized for the process of transferring files between the server and the client.

• The application layer comprises: Protocols such as HTTP, FTP, IRC, SSH, and DNS are utilized in this layer. The appropriate protocol will be used given the specifics of the application being used. For instance, the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) will be utilized in the web application to facilitate communication between the two applications. It is used for applications like as email and file transmission, in addition to web-based applications. Protocols such as HTTP, FTP, IRC, SSH, and DNS are used when working on this layer. The appropriate protocol will be used given the specifics of the application being used. For instance, the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) will be utilized in the web application to facilitate communication between the two applications. Consequently, it is used for applications such as email and file transmission in addition to online applications. This is due to the fact that it offers the capacity to route packets across several networks and moreover safeguards communication between the client and the server.

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